Asian Transactions on Basic & Applied Sciences

Volume: 03, Issue: 02, May 2013
ISSN 2221-4291

Title: Water Pollution and Predominant Hydrochemical Processes of Groundwater of Haddat Ash Sham-Madrakah Area, Makkah Al Mokarramah District, West Central Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia
Author(s): Abdullah R. Sonbul
Paper ID: ATBAS-90311020
Pages: 1 - 13
Abstract: Hadat Ash Sham is considered as a part of Wadi Usfan basin in the western province of Saudi Arabia. The population in the study area depends entirely on groundwater for domestic and agricultural use. Descriptive statistics, correlation matrices and factor analysis were used to gain an understanding of the hydrochemical processes of the groundwater of the Quaternary alluvial deposits as well as the partly fractured basement rocks. The main processes influencing the groundwater chemistry are salinisation, mineral precipitation and dissolution, cation exchange and human activity. The saturated indices of calcite, dolomite, and gypsum and halite minerals data indicate that the infiltration of evaporated water is partly responsible for the occurrence of saline subsurface waters. In irrigated areas as well as the surface depression of the area where the runoff water pounded in surface depression, evaporitic salts are formed. These saline salts are leached to the subsurface, during significant recharge periods. These findings are important in that they contribute to the identification of convenient methods for developing groundwater resources that could yield relatively better quality water. The results of the factor analyses provide insight into the regional factors and processes controlling ground-water composition. Six factors were retained; the first three factors were adequate for describing the groundwater chemistry processes that have taken place in the area. Factor 1 represents the degree of the overall mineralization of the groundwater due to intensive evaporation rates. Factor 2 reflects the dissolution and precipitation of carbonate minerals, Factor 3 may reflect groundwater pollution by on-site sewage disposal systems used in the area and Factor 4 displays the buffering of the HCO3 content by CO2 exchange between groundwater and the atmosphere. Factors 5 and 6 represent single variables, dissolved oxygen (DO) and groundwater temperature and both show high association in these two factors. This confirms that the two variables are largely independently controlled and describe the unique factors assumed to be uncorrelated with each other and with common factors.

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Title: Soil Classification in District of Southern Lembeh, Bitung City of North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Author(s): Lientje T. Karamoy, Luthfi Rayes, Sugeng Prijono, and Bobby Polii
Paper ID: ATBAS-20326029
Pages: 14 - 22
Abstract: A study on soil classification system based on soil taxonomy of United State Department of Agriculture (USDA system) in the District of South Lembeh, Bitung City North Sulawesi had been carried out to identify characteristics of soils in some major land units. The study was conducted by using field survey method with land units (LU)/soil map unit (SMU) approach. There were 19 SL’s with surface homogeneity regarding landform, slope, and land use. Due to similarities in soil properties of some land units, they were then grouped into 7 SMU’s. The samplings employed transect system. The results showed that the soil in the study area belongs to four sub-group of soil: Typic Hapludults, Humic Dystrudepts, Humic Eutrudepts and Humic Hapludults. The physical properties showed that the soil texture was sandy clay, sandy loam, and argillaceous sand with moderate permeability.

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Title: Study the photodegradation of Aniline Blue dye in aqueous Phase by using different photocatalysts
Paper ID: ATBAS-80314020
Pages: 23 - 28
Abstract: This study involves the photocatalytic degradation of Aniline blue(AB) dye, employing heterogeneous photocatalytic process. Photocatalytic activity of different semiconductors such as zinc oxide (ZnO) ,zinc sulfide (ZnS) and Tin dioxide (SnO2) has been investigated. An attempt has been made to study the effect of process parameters through amount of catalyst, concentration of dye, pH of dye solution and temperature on photocatalytic degradation of AB solution. The experiments were carried out by varying pH (2-12), amount of catalyst (0.05–1.5 g), initial concentration of dye (25–100ppm ) and temperature range(293-323)K. The optimum catalyst dose was found to be( 0.1 ,0.5 g and 1) g\L by using ZnO ,ZnS and SnO2, respectively. In the case of ZnO and SnO2 , maximum rate of photoreaction of AB solution was observed in acidic medium at pH 4, whereas the degradation of AB reached maximum at pH 5 when using ZnS catalyst. The performance of photocatalytic system employing ZnO/UV light was observed to be better than ZnS /UV and SnO2/UV system. The complete degradation of AB was observed after 12 min wtih ZnO, whereas with ZnS, only 75% dye degraded and 24.5% with SnO2in 12 min. Photocatalytic degradation was found to increase with increasing temperature. Arrhenius plot shows that the activation energy is equal to 20.94 kJ mol-1 with ZnO, 17.97 kJ mol-1 with ZnS and 14.1 mol-1 with SnO2 catalyst.

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Title: Melting Behaviour and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Poly(lactic acid) Hemp Nanosilica Composites
Author(s): Izan R Mustapa, Robert A. Shanks and Ing Kong
Paper ID: ATBAS-30320028
Pages: 29 - 37
Abstract: Poly(lactic acid) hemp nanosilica composites were prepared with a film stacking method. Melting behaviour of PLA composites was obtained using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and modulated temperature DSC (mT-DSC). Crystallization and melting behaviour of the composites was studied in the range of 60–170°C at various heating rates with non-isothermal DSC. DSC results confirmed that the cold crystallization enthalpy gradually decreased corresponding with an increase in filler content. Multiple melting endotherms observed through mT-DSC were explained by a process of partial melting, recrystallization and remelting (mrr). The dynamic mechanical properties were determined via modulated force thermomechanometry. Better interfacial bonding was evidenced by an increased storage modulus with nanosilica addition, while the damping factor decreased respectively.

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Author(s): Idil Ayçam and Merve Tuna
Paper ID: ATBAS-30315027
Pages: 38 - 46
Abstract: The continual increase in energy needs that results from developing technology, depletion of natural sources needed for life, and environmental pollution all give cause to environmental issues on local and global scales. Sustainable design criteria which emerge as a consequence of attempts to minimize negative effects aim for health and comfort conditions which are required both for human life and the protection of ecological balance. In this sense, so that the abovementioned conditions may be fulfilled, the use of ecological materials in the construction of sustainable buildings is of capital importance. When insulation materials, of indisputable importance in terms of energy conservation, are considered in ecological terms, it may be underscored that no insulation material has all the necessary features. With technological developments and the application of ecological and green principles, insulation materials have gained different features. These materials, prominent in the process of energy-efficient building design, continue to develop not only in heat, fire, and sound insulation but also, In the scope of sustainable structural design, In causing no harm to human health and the environment, and in addition to the function of heat insulation as a component of passive design featuring solar radiation conductivity providing for heat gain and natural lighting of the design space. In addition to organic insulation materials with low embodied energy and that are sensitive to the environment, innovative materials with high heat resistance and recycled insulation materials such as cellulose are also among the outstanding examples of this period of change. With this study, the insulation materials developed in parallel with criteria which have an effect on building design in terms of sustainability are examined comparatively and the process by which these materials have evolved together with developing technology is discussed through examples. To conclude, in light of the data gathered in the comparative analysis, insulation materials used today will be examined in the scope of the specified criteria, and with their deficiencies determined, light will be shed on the point these materials need to reach in the future.

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Title: Temporal Variation of Air Temperature of Dalugha (Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk.) Schott) Habitat in Variation of its Exterior and Interior Environments
Author(s): Semuel P. Ratag, Zaenal Kusuma, Bagyo Yanuwiadi, David A. Kaligis, Johny S. Tasirin and Christophil S. Medellu
Paper ID: ATBAS-60327021
Pages: 47 - 52
Abstract: This article describes our study on the temporal temperature variations of three dalugha (giant swamp taro) habitats with different exterior and interior environments. Dalugha grows in soil with high salinity variations. This study was part of a research on dalugha habitat, associated with the development of this plant as a food alternative. The study was conducted on three different transects exterior and interior environmental conditions. Temporal changes in air temperature and the surrounding environment dalugha habitat obtained through mathematical modeling measurement data at nine positions along the transects. The results showed that the temporal changes in air temperature at all positions have the same pattern, a sinusoidal shape. For the same position, the air temperature on three transects was different. Temperature differences during the day and night were more significant.

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Title: Pervasive Collaborative Network Approach to Type II Diabetes Management
Author(s): K Chellappan and Al Mabrok Saleh Ahmed
Paper ID: ATBAS-70328020
Pages: 53 - 58
Abstract: Pervasive collaborative networks includes a range of stakeholders from health professionals, family members, friends and type II diabetes patients as beneficiaries have the prospective of creating more efficient integration of patients in the healthcare management system. Based on a broad analysis of present and rising healthcare management models and the analysis of a future scenario, a number of strategic actions are identified to appropriately adopt a pervasive collaborative networks approach in type II diabetes management. New directions towards the integration of cloud computing approaches in a new generation of pervasive collaborative system are proposed.

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Author(s): Rudi Subagja, Lia Andriyah and Latifa Hanum Lalasari
Paper ID: ATBAS-60332028
Pages: 59 - 64
Abstract: At present work, an experiment to investigate the effect of Ilmenite particle size, aqueous potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution concentrations, temperature, and reaction time on the decomposition reaction of Ilmenite from Bangka Island Indonesian were studied by using 2 liter capacities autoclave as a reactor for decomposition process. The variable used for experiment were covering Ilmenite particle size from -40 mesh up to -200 mesh, aqueous KOH solution concentrations from 2 mole/liter up to 20 mol/liter, decomposition temperature from 100°C up to 175°C and decomposition time from 2 hours up to 12 hours. The result of observation by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to the decomposed Ilmenite shows that the more finer Ilmenite particle size are more effective to be decomposed by aqueous KOH solutions than the coarse one, the morphology of Ilmenite changed when it was reacted with aqueous KOH solutions, and it significantly change when aqueous KOH solution concentrations were increased from 2 mole/liter up to 20 mol/liter, decomposition temperature were increased from 100°C up to 175°C and decomposition time were extended from 2 hours up to 12 hours. The result of analysis by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to the Ilmenite decomposition products show that K2TiO3 phase was found at all Ilmenite decomposition products.

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Title: Analysis of Land Conversion and its Impacts and Strategies in Managing Them in City of Tomohon, Indonesia
Author(s): Noortje M. Benu, Maryunani, Sugiyanto, and Paulus Kindangen
Paper ID: ATBAS-40329021
Pages: 65 - 72
Abstract: A study to examine the dominant factors that affect the land conversion in Tomohon and reviewing the development strategies that could eliminate the land conversion uses in Tomohon, North Sulawesi has been conducted in an explanatory research. The respondents were farmers who converted their land in five districts with proportional random sampling technique. We also involved experts in this study. We used factor analysis method and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for data analysis. The qualitative analysis was descriptive to explain the process of land conversion and its impact in Tomohon. The results showed that there were three dominant factors that affected land conversion, namely economic factors, landscape factors, and food security factors. In using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in dealing with land conversion, the aspect to be considered was the economic aspect of the public policy on food diversification. The appropriate development strategy for City of Tomohon is the eco-tourism development strategy.

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Title: Effectiveness of Credit Risk Management of Saudi Banks in the Light of Global Financial Crisis:A Qualitative Study
Author(s): Khalil Elian Abdelrahim
Paper ID: ATBAS-10305028
Pages: 73 - 91
Abstract: The study aims at investigating determinants, challenges and developing means of credit risk managements at Saudi Banks. The methodology is descriptive and analytical using"CAMEL"Model for analyzing performance of credit risk management.The study concluded that liquidity has significant strong positive impact beside bank size which has significant strong negative impact on effectiveness of credit risk management.While other variables of capital adequacy, asset quality, management soudness and earning have insignificant impact on effectiveness of credit risk management. The challenges facing effectiveness credit risk management in sequent importance are: weak corporate governance, low quality of assets, little credit diversification; not conducting serious financial analysis; not charging risk premium on risky loans, corruption of credit officers; priority of profitability at expense of safety and priority of loan guarantees at expense of capacity of repayment. Means of developing effectiveness of credit risk management in sequent importance are: training of credit officers; improving assets quality; strengthening corporate governance; professional analysis of customer's financial position and having access to Credit Bureau's information. The study recommends an overall strategy for effective credit risk management of Saudi Banks based on enhancing capital adequacy, upgrading asset quality, strenghthening management soundness, increasing earnings, having adequate liquidity and reducing sensitivity to market risk besides hedging credit risk; having adequate provisions for doubtful credit; renegotiating loan terms, transferring credit risk to a third party, extending credit maturity and lowering interest rate on insolvent loan.

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