Asian Transactions on Engineering

Volume: 01, Issue: 03, June 2011
ISSN 2221-4267

Title: A study of periodic and stochastic modeling of monthly rainfall from Purajaya station
Authors: A. Zakaria
Paper ID: ATE-70104028
Pages: 1-7
Abstract: A study was done using monthly rainfall data with long data 25 years (1977-2001) of Purajaya station. The goal of this research is to study periodic and stochastic models of data series of the monthly cumulative rainfall. Based on daily rainfall data, monthly cumulative rainfall data series was calculated. The series of rainfall is assumed to be free of trend. Periodicities of rainfall data were presented using 125 periodic components. Stochastic series of rainfall data are assumed as residues between rainfall data with periodic rainfall model. Stochastic components were calculated using the approach of autoregressive model. Stochastic Model presented in this research is using the fourth orders autoregressive model. Validation between data and the model is done by calculating the correlation coefficient. For this study, the correlation coefficient between the data and the model of the cumulative monthly rainfall is 0.9992. From the results of this study can be inferred that the model of the monthly rainfall from Purajaya station gives highly accurate approach.

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Title: Wireless Sensor Networks and nodes information collecting ability
Authors: Elma Zanaj, Indrit Enesi
Paper ID: ATE-60129037
Pages: 8-13
Abstract: The efficient use of energy in Wireless Sensor Networks represents one of the most important constrains for the management of long term communications. In this paper, we propose a new definition that of node information collecting ability. Numerical simulations will show how this parameter will influence in the network lifetime, reliability and in the quantity of information that the network collects.

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Authors: Budi Saksono1 and Muhammad Kismurtono
Paper ID: ATE-80101039
Pages: 14-22
Abstract: Technologies for the production of biofuels have increased attention due to the rising cost of petrol and global warming. One such technology under development is the use of Lactobacillus pentosus for biofuels production. Lactobacillus pentosus is lactic acid bacteria which able to metabolize both of pentose and hexose, and to grow on media containing hydrolyzed biomass. Thus it has many advantages as host for multiple purposes such as micro bioenergy development. To develop the strain, we already cloned gene pdc and adh2 from zymobacter palmae and Lactobacillus plantarum, respectively. In this paper, we will report our strategy to develop those microbioenergy and our recen research progress.

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Authors: Adebayo, Thomas A. and Ajayi, Olusola
Paper ID: ATE-20106033
Pages: 23-26
Abstract: Drilling fluid cost and effectiveness are two key factors in drilling fluid selection. Kaolinitic clay is of the family of bentonite and investigation was carried out to check the effect of partial replacement of expensive bentonite in drilling mud with cheap Nigerian kaolin. Two types of kaolin, kaolin1 and kaolin2, were sources in deep wells at Ota, Ogun state, Nigeria at depths between 100ft and 120feet. The two types of kaolin were used naturally in unprocessed state. It was discovered that the apparent and actual viscosities of the mud reduces significantly with increasing kaolin1 and kaolin2 content. Replacement of bentonite with kaolin1 resulted in 85.7% reduction in the mud viscosity while that of kaolin2 gave a corresponding 83.33% reduction. This is an indication that bentonite is more effective than the two kaolin as a viscosifier. The density of the mud slurry increased significantly with more kaolin1 and kaolin2 addition with a 25% and 27.25% increase respectively at 100% kaolin. The volume of each of the kaolin was doubled at total replacement of bentonite and an increase in weight was observed. This is an indication that the two types of kaolin are good weight additives. A replacement of 50% of the bentonite with any of the kaolin resulted into zero gel strength for the mud. The research indicated that the unprocessed kaolin serves as both colloidal and weighting additive but there will be need for a secondary viscosifier to be added if any of the kaolin is to be used for total replacement of bentonite in the mud. Moreover, a gelling additive must be added to the mud when the kaolin is to be used. Since the two types of kaolin tend to partially replace the bentonite and barite components of the water-based mud, their application in drilling mud is expected to reduce the cost of the mud as the additives are far cheaper than either bentonite or barite. This research is expected to extend to the second part which will involve the processing of the kaolin types and their application on the drilling mud properties and also investigate the possibility of enhanced gelling properties of the kaolin.

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Title: Laminar flow heat transfer of a dilute viscoelastic solution in flattened tube heat exchangers
Authors: Ismail, Z., Karim, R
Paper ID: ATE-50107036
Pages: 27-41
Abstract: Results of studies on heat transfer of viscoelastic solution in flattened tube exchangers were presented. Effect of aspect ratio on the heat transfer performance in exchangers with 0.635 cm and 1.27 cm original diameters and 50 cm to 76 cm lengths were carried out. Five flattened-tube heat exchangers with four thermocouples soldered at regular intervals on the outside wall were placed in turn in the experimental circuit to determine the heat transfer coefficients. Hot water was used as the heating medium; and dilute solution of polyacrylamide in water was used as the viscoelastic solution. Heat transfer increase as a result of flattening the tubes could be as high as 101% while the effect due to secondary flow had a maximum increase of about 86% at an aspect ratio of 1.6.

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Title: Instream Flow Requirement of Dudhkumar River in Bangladesh
Authors: M.M. Hossain and M.J. Hosasin
Paper ID: ATE-80109039
Pages: 42-49
Abstract: Dudhkumar is an international river shared by Bhutan, India and Bangladesh. Bangladesh being the lowermost riparian country, the water of the river is very vital for the sustenance of livelihood of the people, planning of new water resources projects including evaluation of existing projects and her natural resources at desired level. In-stream flow requirement of Dudhkumar river using three methods of hydrological approaches viz., the Mean Annual Flow, Flow Duration Curve and Constant Yield method have been conducted. All available data on water level and discharge for the period from 1965 to 2008 were utilized in this respect. The study showed that for most of the months during low flow season given due consideration to various demands, there were a deficit or shortage of water in the river, while during flood season most of the demands could be met and duration of deficit period was shorter.

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Title: Engine Performance and Oil Analysis of Biodiesel from Bulk Oil
Authors: Annisa Bhikuning
Paper ID: ATE-70122038
Pages: 50-54
Abstract: Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuel made from vegetable oil, friendly for environment and has no effect on health and can reduce the emission compared with diesel fuel. To obtain Biodiesel, the vegetable oil or animal fat is subjected to a chemical reaction termed transesterification. In that reaction, the vegetable oil or animal fat is reacted by catalyst with an alcohol (usually methanol) to give the corresponding methyl esters. In this study, Biodiesel are made from bulk oil, and used two catalyst; KOH and NaOH. And then, Biodiesel Bulk Oil blended 20% (B20) with petrodiesel. In oil analysis showed that cetane number for B20 using catalyst KOH (B20KOH) is higher 3.71 % than using B20 catalyst NaOH (B20NaOH). Experiment was conducted in one hour engine running test. Test fuels are petrodiesel as a datum, B20KOH,B20NaOH, pure bulk oil with catalyst KOH (B100KOH) and pure bulk oil with catalyst NaOH (B100NaOH). The results, in minimum load to 60% load, B20KOH and B20NaOH are more efficient up to 11.6% than petrodiesel. In contrary, for maximum load (80%), Petrodiesel is more efficient 0.5 % than B20KOH. And B100KOH is the most inefficient compared with other fuels.

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Title: Remote Operation of Oil and Gas production installations in the Niger Delta
Authors: Francis .E Idachaba
Paper ID: ATE-70105038
Pages: 55-59
Abstract: The current security challenges posed by the militancy in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and the need by the International Oil and Gas Companies(IOC) operating in these areas to deploy both local and expatriates personnel for mandatory site visits both for operations, maintenance and upgrades make it necessary for the evolution of more effective operation strategies. The IOCs have resorted to the use of armed military escorts for staff to and from the sites and this has yielded some reduction in the risks but has still not totally eliminated it. This paper presents a robust communication configuration which is designed to enable remote operations, control, maintenance and upgrades by experts from a secure location away from the site. The system is implemented using appropriate sensors, communication links, topologies and plant operators. The advantages of this system include the reduction of staff exposure to the risks currently associated with traveling to these remote locations in the Niger delta region. It also ensures significant OPEX cost savings for the IOCs in terms of logistics costs and also allows for an increased effectiveness of the experts in terms of deployment time and the number of sites the can handle.

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Title: Analysis of traffic engineering parameters while using multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) and traditional IP networks
Authors: Faiz Ahmed and Dr. Irfan Zafar
Paper ID: ATE-80115039
Pages: 60-64
Abstract: Traffic Engineering is a subject which ensures the utilization of your resources at their optimum level. In order to uplift the traffic engineering in our today networks, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is being used which is very helpful for reliable packets delivery in recent internet services. It ensures high transmission speed, efficient utilization of bandwidth and lower delays during delivery of packets from one location to another. The purpose of MPLS in traffic engineering is to employ the networks as well as network resources efficiently. Based on lower network delay, capable forwarding means, scalability and expected performance of the services given by MPLS technology indicates its significance for implementing real-time applications i.e Voice & video. The salient of the thesis is to indicate the shortcomings of traditional IP networks vis-à-vis benefits of MPLS networks. The comparison analysis is based on the traffic engineering parameters such as delay variation, effective utilization of bandwidth, Jitter, Quality of Service (QoS), data loss and congestion etc. The results of the comparison revealed that traffic engineering through MPLS networks has enhanced reliability, scalability and other parameters as compared to traditional IP networks. In this thesis, Graphic Network Simulator (GNS3) has been used for simulation purpose to ascertain the results of both networks.

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