Asian Transactions on Engineering

Volume: 02, Issue: 03, July 2012
ISSN 2221-4267

Title: Measurement of Reactive Power in Single-Phase Networks by Use of the Walsh Functions
Author(s): Adalet Abiyev
Paper ID: ATE-80213036
Pages: 1 - 9
Abstract: This paper describes Walsh function (WF) based method for the evaluation of reactive power (RP) component from instantaneous power signal in the sinusoidal conditions. Proposed method simplifies the multiplication procedure to evaluate the reactive components from instantaneous power signal. The advantages of the proposed method have been verified by experimental studies. One of these advantages is that in contrast to the known existing methods which involve phase shift operation of the input signal, the proposed technique does not require the time delay of the current signal to the Ĉ / 2 with respect to the voltage signal. Another advantage is related to the computational saving properties of the proposed approach coming from use of the Walsh Transform (WT) based signal processing method. Validity and effectiveness of the suggested method for evaluation of the RP components of the electrical power have been tested by use of a simulation tool developed on the base of "Matlab".

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Title: Application of neural network to optimize oil field production
Author(s): Jreou, Ghazwan N S
Paper ID: ATE-40210034
Pages: 10 - 23
Abstract: The development of a production strategy for oil and gas fields is an important task adopted by the directorate companies which are invested on those fields, and the main goal of their plans is to increase the ultimate field production as much as possible within economical and physical limits. This work presents the determination of the optimum number and location of the infill production new wells under development stage of the field life for one of the four production sections of the concerning oil field in this study (Southern Iraqi Oil Field). A feed forward neural network approach has been performed to locate the infill production wells in order to increase the total oil production from that production sector. 143 data sets of six variables (No. of injection wells, No. of production wells, Injection production ratio, Oil fraction, Cumulative of injected water and Cumulative water production ) as input layer were prepared in a bundle form in order to use directly with the selected Feed Forward Neural Network combining with the employed neural network. These data sets were collected and arranged according to the three concentric circles – mask calculation procedure- around the prospectus new wells in order to simplify and accurate reservoir and production information for each circle calculations. One variable was gained as output layer from the constructed neural network. Good and encouraging results were obtained that can be serve and support the development phase of the concerning field case study, in addition the results can help the directorate manager for reaching the right decision in execution manner.

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Title: Heat Transfer Characteristics and Temperature Distribution of Falling Film over Horizontal Hot Tube Arrays
Author(s): Hani H. Sait
Paper ID: ATE-60214032
Pages: 24 - 34
Abstract: Falling film heat exchanger is widely used in the industry, because of its high heat transfer coefficient, low liquid quantity and lower fouling factor. The heat exchanger considered here is a falling film one. It consists of a unique feeding tube, supply liquid such as pure water over seven parallel horizontal tubes which are heated internally. Convection heat transfer takes place outside the tubes surface and it is experimentally investigated. The falling film over the test tubes may be in the form of a droplet, jet or sheet. A combination of these forms is also possible. The tested tubes are made of copper and have 28.5 mm outer diameter and 300 mm length, each. They are arranged in series so that heated water enters each tube with the same flow rate, from bottom to top. The temperatures at the entrance and exit of the hot water flow and the falling film liquid are recorded. Also, the average surface temperature at one test tube is measured using five impeded thermocouples. An infrared camera is used to show the temperature distribution on the test tubes surfaces. The flow rates of each liquid path are controlled and monitored. The effects of different falling film forms and hot water flow rate, on the heat transfer coefficient are studied. Initial results show that changing the falling film forms and internal flow rate has a significant effect on the heat transfer coefficient. They also show that jet mode falling film has the best heat transfer coefficient.

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Title: Finding the Outliers on Solar Radiation in Northern Malaysia, Perlis
Author(s): I. Daut, Y.M. Irwan, I. Safwati, M. Irwanto, N. Gomesh, M. Fitra
Paper ID: ATE-90212037
Pages: 35 - 40
Abstract: Statistical models for predicting the solar radiation have been developed. In any prediction of the solar radiation, an understanding of its characteristics is of fundamental importance. This study presents an investigation of a relationship between solar radiation and temperature in Perlis, Northern Malaysia for the year of 2006. To achieve this, the data are presented in daily averaged maximum and minimum air temperature, and daily averaged solar radiation. Since the scatter plots represent the straight line, the linear regression model was selected to estimate the solar radiation. It was found that the linear correlation coefficient value is 0.7473 shows that a strong linear relationship between solar radiation and temperature. The analysis of variance R2 is 0.5585 that is; about 56 percent of the variability in temperature is accounted for by the straight-line fit to solar radiation. Based on the results, the fitted model is adequate to represent the estimation of solar radiation.

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Title: CFD Modeling of Grate Furnace Designs for Municipal Solid Waster Combustion
Author(s): Ahmad Hussain
Paper ID: ATE-50221034
Pages: 41 - 50
Abstract: The average amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Malaysia is 0.5–0.8 kg/person/day and has increased to 1.7 kg/person/day in major cities. As rapid development continues, so does the amount of MSW and thus a lack of space for new landfills. Thus a better way of disposing MSW would be to incinerate. The basic design requirements of high-performance incinerators are the 3Ts (time, temperature, and turbulence). An adequate retention time in a hot environment is crucial to destroy the products of incomplete combustion and organic pollutants. Also turbulent mixing enhances uniform distributions of temperature and oxygen availability. With today’s ever increasing computer power, CFD modeling has now become a useful tool for modeling complex geometry and flow conditions in the incinerators. CFD combustion and flow simulations can enable detailed parametric variations of design variables. Bed combustion was done using FLIC 2.3C and the CFD modeling of an industrial scale MSW incinerator design was done using FLUENT Ver. 6.2.18. The 2D modeling was based on conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy. The k-was employed for turbulent flow modeling. The meshing was done using Gambit 2.2.3. The Generalized Finite Rate model was used to simulate hot flow inside the chamber. Simulations have resulted in predicting the combustion behavior in various grate furnace designs. The emissions behaviour in various sections of the combustors have been modeled to a reasonable accuracy.

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Author(s): Simin Ghavifekr, Sufean Hussin , Muhammad Faizal A.Ghani and Zuraidah Abdullah
Paper ID: ATE-50211036
Pages: 51 - 61
Abstract: Vision plays an important role in leadership and strategic planning for all organizations including education. In this regards planning vision is the management’s key task and responsibility. In managing the change process, working on vision not only means examining and re-examining the strategic planning for the organization but also making explicit to management the purpose for the change. Consequently, the importance of the vision and planning would be more critical when an organization is going through the new technology-based changes. This paper focuses on “vision “as one of the main component of change management. Therefore, in order to see the different aspect of visionary planning in situation of educational change, four main strategies of management including planning, organizing, guiding, and monitoring have been examined. From the data analysis it was found that in the context of technology-based change or systemic change that affects all the levels and aspects of the organization, vision and strategic planning play as the two key prerequisites for the success of the change. The results of in-depth analysis of “vision” as the key theme of this study are presented in this paper.

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Title: Seismic performance assessment of a continuous highway bridge seismically isolated by lead rubber bearings
Author(s): A. R. Bhuiyan, R. Alam, N. Haque
Paper ID: ATE-60217035
Pages: 62 - 71
Abstract: This study is dedicated towards conducting seismic performance assessment of a three-span continuous highway bridge isolated by lead rubber bearing (LRB) subjected to near and far field earthquake ground motion records. A typical interior bridge pier modeled by a 2-DOF system comprising an isolation bearing (LRB) and a bridge pier is considered in the study. In the first step of the work, analytical models of the bridge pier and LRB are introduced. A visco-elasto-plastic rheology model for describing the mechanical behavior of LRB is employed, whereas a standard bilinear force-displacement relationship is employed for evaluating the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the bridge pier. In the second phase of the work, nonlinear dynamic analysis of the 2-DOF system using a standard direct time integration approach is performed to compute the seismic responses such as pier displacement, bearing displacement, bearing force and input energy. The analytical results show that the seismic responses of the system are significantly affected by the characteristics of the earthquake ground motion records.

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Title: Generation and Evaluation of Accuracy of Digital Elevation Model Data Derived From Universal and Topographic Stereo-plotters Using Electronic Data Acquisition Systems
Author(s): Abdullah S Alsalman
Paper ID: ATE-90218023
Pages: 72 - 76
Abstract: In circumstances where upgraded stereo-plotters and a set of aerial photos are available, digital terrain model (DTM) data can be acquired to an accuracy level comparable with that obtained using much expensive analytical and digital instrumentation (i:e ± 0.2m - ± 0.5m). Such accuracy figure is commensurate with the requirements of a number of civil engineering, cartography and other application areas with much savings in cost.

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Title: Biodiesel Production and Investigations on the Performance of Diesel Engine Using Jatropha Oil
Author(s): M. Bassyouni, F. H. Akhtar, Hussain A. and A. Umer
Paper ID: ATE-70222035
Pages: 77 - 88
Abstract: Biodiesel has become a key source as a substitution fuel and is making its place as a key future renewable energy source. The current scenario for higher GHG emissions has persuaded the policy makers, investors and researchers to think more of the substitution of fossil fuels to save the planet. The environmental impacts and the agronomic properties of oils have not been thoroughly investigated. In this paper production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil and the emission analysis was made. Effect of alcohol was checked by varying the amount of catalyst. The higher amount of catalyst 1% w/w although gives rapid increase in the yield initially but after some time the yield decreases because of the hindrance in reaction due to emulsion formation. Various blends of biodiesel with fossil diesel were tested on an engine. The engine was run at 50% throttle opening for various samples with varying engine speed and power curves were drawn. The engine speed was varied from 1200 to 2500 rpm and the exhaust gas samples were analyzed for CO, NOx and HC emissions. Initial tests propose a nice start for studying engine performance. Although it describes the information for comparison of biodiesel with fossil diesel however, further working is required for the development of statistical models. These initial tests are promising in regard of emissions analysis and engine power.

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Title: Study of Solidification and Mechanical Properties of Al-Sn Casting Alloys
Author(s): Eman J. Abed
Paper ID: ATE-40205039
Pages: 89 - 98
Abstract: Al-Sn alloys have a very long history to be used as bearing materials. These alloys provide a good combination of strength and surface properties. This study aimed to investigate solidification and mechanical behavior of Al-Sn alloy against both the molding conditions and tin content (20 % , 30 % , 40 % Sn). A metal mold with a different diameter was prepared to study the solidification rate; tribological experiments have been carried out by using a pin on disc machine to investigate the effect of the alloying element content and the molding conditions on the wear resistance and microstructure of the alloys. The results showed with the increasing of tin content the solidification time decreased, as also a decrease of the liquidus temperature was observed and then increased with increasing Sn %. However, decrease of both the ultimate tensile strength and the hardness is obtained by the increase of the tin content also the wear rate decrease with increase of tin content.

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Title: Research of Vegetative Raw Materials for Preparation of Fermented Vegetables
Author(s): Nurseitova Z.T., Kassymova M.K., Mamayeva L.A.
Paper ID: ATE-30208031
Pages: 99 - 102
Abstract: In this investigation for preparation fermented vegetables are considered chemical, mineral and vitamin composition of vegetable raw materials. Use of vegetables (carrot of Nantskaya-4 and pumpkin of Mindal-35) by production of milk products increase they biological and food values, are developed they assortment.

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Title: Removal of arsenic from groundwater using burnt rice straw
Author(s): M.O. Faruque, M. J. Uddin
Paper ID: ATE-70216030
Pages: 103 - 129
Abstract: The ability of burnt rice straw (BRS) as a potential adsorbent for As(III) removal from ground water was studied. Batch experiments were carried out to characterize the As(III) removal capacity of BRS. The effects of various sorption parameters such as the adsorbent dose, contact time and initial arsenic concentration have been discussed. Under the experimental conditions, the optimum adsorbent dose for BRS was found to be 10 gm/l with an agitation time of 6 hours. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used to explain the phenomenon. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated using Langmuir model was 199 μg/gm for As(III) at 28ºC and PH 7.0. Adsorption mechanism was explained by Pseudo-first-order (Lagergren) model and the corresponding parameters were calculated. Burnt rice straw (BRS) was found to be a good adsorbent for removing As(III) from ground water as compared to other adsorbent already used for the removal of arsenic.

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