Asian Transactions on Engineering

Volume: 03, Issue: 04, September 2013
ISSN 2221-4267

Title: Quantitative Analysis of Spatial Pattern of Dustbins and its Pollution in Dhaka City -- A GIS Based Approach
Author(s): M.T.H. Shubho, M.T. Hassan, M.R. Hossain and M. N. Neema
Paper ID: ATE-30309048
Pages: 1 - 7
Abstract: Smart waste management in a city is significantly manifested by the optimal distribution of waste collection points (dustbins). Evidently, inadequate number of dustbins coupled with improper management may trigger pollution to a great extent. Waste collection using insufficient street dustbins is a widely used way of solid waste management in Dhaka city. Yet an uncomforting scenario of air pollution is prevailing in different wards of Dhaka. The reasons can be put forth as inadequate and unequal distribution of municipal dustbins, improper management including waste overflow and the lack of awareness in usage among the people. In this context, an attempt has been made in this paper to obtain a quantitative analysis between existing dustbins and their serving population. This study first analyses the spatial distribution of dustbins in some areas of Dhaka city employing average nearest neighbor functions of GIS. Interestingly, the spatial distribution of the existing dustbins has shown to be predominantly in clustered pattern. Next, an optimal number of additional dustbins were calculated. An additional number of 20 and 8 dustbins are required in areas (wards) # 34 and # 35 in Dhaka city. We also examined the extent of pollution caused by the existing dustbins using spatial analyst functions of GIS. It is found that all the dustbins are burst with wastes and causing pollution to the ground surface and air. The results thus obtained would help to understand the present scenario of the waste management of Dhaka city and to optimally place the required number of dustbins to prevent further pollution to environment.

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Title: A GIS-based Multi-criteria Analysis to Site Appropriate Locations of Hospitals in Dhaka City
Author(s): N. Sharmin and M. N. Neema
Paper ID: ATE-90305047
Pages: 8 - 12
Abstract: Health is one of the basic needs of human being, which is achieving significant importance globally and locally particularly in the city's perspective. Mega city Dhaka is highly confronted with extremely poor living environmental conditions and lack of basic amenities, inadequate healthcare facilities, and outreach of services. Unfortunately, there is lack of policy adaptation and implementation with regard to the spatial dimension of planning for health facilities. Moreover, the health facilities are distributed disproportionately, rather than in an equitable manner. Many poor people do not have access to the healthcare centers in the city. However, it is estimated that, the expected growth of population will put greater pressure on the already inadequate health services. Therefore, it requires examining the spatial distribution of hospitals and providing optimal locations of new hospitals. This study analyzes the existing locations of hospitals in a part of the city and find out suitable locations for providing new hospitals.. This study considers multiples criteria including distances from existing hospitals, roads, educational institutions, industries and water bodies to determine suitable places for new hospitals. To perform this study, the spatial analyst and geo-processing tools of geographic information systems (GIS) were employed. Finally, the suitable locations have been presented in a map, which implicates that the total area of suitable locations for new hospitals in the study area is 10.95 acres comprising 0.48% of the study area. This study thus provides decision makers with suitable sites for new hospital allocation to adequately cover the hospital needs in the study area.

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Title: Impacts of Climate Change on Food Security in Bangladesh -- A GIS-based analysis
Author(s): M.A. Siraj, M. N. Neema and M.T.H. Shubho
Paper ID: ATE-70312047
Pages: 13 - 18
Abstract: Climate change has some conspicuous adverse impacts on food production. Bangladesh is confronted with a big challenge to cope up with the significant impact of climate change. In this context, an attempt has been made using GIS to analyze the impacts of climate change on Gross Domestic Products (GDP), rice cultivated area, food production and availability, crop production due to temperature and CO2 rise, and ultimate food security due to natural calamities. This study includes the prevailing data on food sector, socio-economic and demographic information. Statistical and GIS analyses manifest that, the contribution of agricultural sector in GDP was reduced by 13.56 % from fiscal year 2003-04 to 2010-11 and arable lands of the country were declined especially for major rice of type-1 (Aus) and type-2 (Aman) by 64.24 % and 6.5 % respectively in spite of significantly increasing overall cultivated area due to increased cropping intensity of high yielding variety rice type-3 (Boro). On the other hand, the domestic production of different types of cereal and non-cereal crops was increased except wheat and pulses which reduced respectively 29.22% and 172.69% from fiscal year 1995-96 to 2009-10. Besides, due to temperature rise wheat, Aus and Boro production reduced by 27%, 61% and 62% respectively and due to climate change induced calamities, on an average almost 409077.5 metric tons food production are lost and 23.62 million hectares of agriculture lands are degraded every year. In addition, per capita consumption of people has found to be decreased due to the high population pressure and climate change induced different natural calamities. These results obtained thus can support decision makers, concerned authority and general citizens to realize the current food security aspects of Bangladesh and the government can undertake effective measures to ensure the food security.

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