Asian Transactions

Volume: 01, Issue: 02, April 2011

Title: Stratigraphic Setting, Facies Types and Depositional Environments of Haddat Ash Sham Ironstones, Western Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia
Authors: Rushdi J. Taj
Paper ID: ATBAS-40110025
Pages: 1-25
Abstract: The ironstone-bearing Tertiary succession in Haddat Ash Sham area consists of conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones, mudstones and ironstones arranged in upward coarsening-and fining cycles of intermittent depositional environments ranging from fluvial coastal plain to shallow marine. The studied ironstones are enclosed within the middle shallow marine member of this succession. This middle ironstones-bearing member consists of repeated coarsening and shallowing-upward cycles representing deposition during general upward increasing in the current and wave activities as a result of the gradual progradation of linear tidal sand/ooid bars on basal shelf muds. The ironstones are classified according to their stratigraphic setting, depositional environments and lithology into the following types: chamositic, silty chamositic, lean oolitic, true oolitic, silty, chamositic silty and sandy ironstones. Most of these ironstones are recorded within the middle and upper parts of small-scale shallowing and coarsening-upward cycles reflecting intermittent short-lived periods of sea regression and transgression. The chamositic ironstones are recorded in the middle parts of the cycles while the oolitic and sandy ironstones are recorded in the middle and upper parts of the cycles. The mineralogical compositions and textural parameters of these ironstones vary according their stratigraphic positions and depositional environments. The different ironstone are composed mainly from: a) extra-basinal components i.e. quartz, intermixed with amorphous clays and Fe-oxyhydroxides, b) intra-basinal components i.e. chamosite and Fe-oxyhydroxides flasers, ooids and peloids, and c) diagenetic components formed by the hematitization of the precursor amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides as well as the green chamositic clays and the formation of goethite and hematite mineral phases of different morphological forms (cements, coating, ooids and peloids).

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Title: Transition Rule Mining of Cellular Geography Model Using Map Sequence and Spatiotemporal Series Analysis Approach
Authors: Ahmad Zuhdi, Aniati Murni Arymurthy, Heru Suhartanto, Maruli H. Manurung
Paper ID: ATC-40117025
Pages: 26-32
Abstract: Transition rules elicitation is an important issue in modeling of spatiotemporal dynamics of the Cellular Geography model, because the transition rule is an engine of the system dynamics. The rule calculates the value of current cell, based on cell value and the value of its neighboring cells at the previous time. We propose the transition rules of the model, using multiple linear regression analysis, by performing adjustment of model parameters and input data. Data in this research is a collection of JPEG images of maps that present the results of observations of drought code variable in Fire Danger Rating System for 30 successive days. In order to process the data in the model Continues Cellular Geography, the qualitative input data was transformed into continuous data using random number generator based on certain probability distribution. The research observed the effect of the selection of neighborhood scheme and its radius, to the quality of transition rules. Experimental results show, continues uniform distribution is better than normal distribution and uniform discrete distribution. Whilst in the scheme of Cellular Automata model, von Neumann neighborhood with radius 2, is the optimal scheme. Manipulation of map resolution, by up grading or down grading it‘s scale, can be decreasing the quality of transition rules. Unfortunately, this research hasn’t found the parameter setting, which has no significance of external variation, except of 2 cases.

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Title: Vernacular Houses Typology and its Respond to the Earthquake
Authors: Sugeng Triyadi, Iwan Sudradjat, Andi Harapan
Paper ID: ATE-40103025
Pages: 33-40
Abstract: Desa Duku Ulu, one of the oldest village in Rejang Lebong Region, Bengkulu Province, Indonesia, is the earthquake area. Some of earthquakes made several damages especially for buildings. Interestingly, many of vernacular houses are survived and got only light damages while there are many modern building got great damages. Unfortunately, the potential of vernacular houses are not optimized by the local people. As time pass by, many house has been constructed with different ways. This paper will elaborate 5 vernacular houses typologies and their respond to the earthquake . The study methods used are field study, semi-structured interview and forum group discussion with local community and documentation by field measuring and building redrawing. Field study and semi-structured interview focus on two aspects of observations, which are: 1) traditional building and 2) skill & local resource use. Observations to vernacular building include 4 aspects: 1) house form & design, 2) structural system, 3) material used, 4) joinery & other details (construction system). Observation to skills and local resource include: 1) building skill, and 2) culture (such as solidarity).

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Title: Risk Forecast of Gas Transmission Pipeline Maintenance using Random Number Generation Simulation
Authors: Andy Noorsaman Sommeng, Heri Hermansyah, Anondho Wijanarko
Paper ID: ATE-80113029
Pages: 41-54
Abstract: Risk forecast gas distribution pipeline using random generation is developed. The tool is based on a simulation software. The tool has been applied to find the dominant risk in distribution pipeline to support the activity of pipeline integrity management of the company. The main strength of this method is that it has a high probability of obtaining better solution with significantly fewer simulation runs than oher methods. Also, by changing step size, it is possible to influence the results. This method is general and can be applied to other process modelled or activities. The result of this study can be applied in maintaining the activity of asset management integrity of the gas pipeline company.

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Title: Comparative study between Mel-LP and LP-Mel based front-ends for noisy speech recognition using HMM
Authors: M. Shohidul Islam, M. Babul Islam, M. Mojahidul Islam, M. Shamim Hossain, M. Muntasir Rahman
Paper ID: ATC-30116024
Pages: 55-59
Abstract: Since the parameterization in the perceptually relevant aspects of short-term speech spectra in ASR front-end is advantageous for speech recognition, such as Mel-LPC, LPC-Mel, MFCC etc., in this paper, Mel-LP and LP-Mel based front-ends have been designed for automatic speech recognition (ASR). The speech classifier of the developed ASR is based on Hidden Markov Model (HMM) as it can successfully cope with acoustic variation and lack of word boundaries of speech signal. The performance of the developed system has been evaluated on test set A of Aurora-2 database both for Mel-LP and LP-Mel based front-ends. It has been found that the Mel-LP based front-end is more effective for noise type subway, babble and exhibition; on the other hand, LP-Mel based front-end is suitable for car noise. The average word accuracy for Mel-LPC has been found to be 59.05%, while for LPC-Mel, it has been 54.45%.

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Title: Design of Thin-Film-Transistor (TFT) Arrays Using Current Mirror Circuits
Authors: N. S Salahuddin, E.P. Wibowo, A.B. Mutiara, M. Paindavoine
Paper ID: ATE-80115029
Pages: 60-67
Abstract: The heart of the flat panel digital detector consists of a two-dimensional array of amorphous silicon photodiodes and thin-film transistors (TFTs), all deposited on a single substrate. We designed 4x4 matrix TFTs arrays using current mirror amplifiers. Advantages of current mirror amplifiers are they need less requiring switches and the conversion time is short. The TFT arrays 4x4 matrixes using current mirror circuits have been fabricated and tested with success. The TFT array directly can process signals coming from 16 pixels in the same node. This enables us to make the summation of the light intensities of close pixels during a reading.

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Authors: Thomas A. Adebayo and D. A. Kazim
Paper ID: ATE-80106029
Pages: 68-71
Abstract: This research compares the extractive strength of four different organic solvents for the production of synthetic crude from Nigerian oilsands. Benzene, Toluene, Xylene and Carbon tetrachloride were used in a Soxhlet extractor. The most popular surface mining method uses hot water and caustic soda for the extraction of the crude from the oilsands but this research considered the use of hydrocarbon solvents. The change in the colouration of the black oilsand to dirty-white in the course of this research is an indication of high extraction efficiency. The results also showed that Carbon Tetrachloride gave the highest rate of extraction followed by Benzene while Xylene gave the minimum rate of extraction. It was discovered that the rate of reaction is inversely proportional to the boiling point of the solvents used. Considering the flammability and health hazards, Carbon Tetrachloride is recommended as the best solvent extractor among the four since it has low flammability and health risks. Alternative to the carbon Tetrachloride is Xylene because of its very low health risk and flammability when compared to the remaining two solvents, which tends to have higher rate of extraction than the Xylene.

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